Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection in Karachi
The prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) can vary significantly in males and females among different age groups. With the increased use of antibiotics, UTIs have now become more challenging to treat and a major healthcare issue in developing countries. Therefore, this retrospective study was designed to recognize the resistance profile of isolates from samples of UTI patients in Karachi, Pakistan, so that a proper treatment plan against the infection can be prescribed. One thousand seven hundred hundred urine samples were processed to isolate pathogens at the One Health Diagnostics Microbiology department, Karachi, for 6 months in 2020. Results were analyzed to determine the age group affected, gender affected, the correlation of age group and gender, the most frequent to least frequent isolates found, and the susceptibility patterns of isolates. Pearson Chi-square test was applied to identify whether an association existed between the different variables. The degree of association between the risk factors and UTI was determined by calculating Cramer's V and Odds Ratio (OR). Out of 1700 samples, 1130 (66.5%) were positive samples for UTI, with 910 (80.5%) females and 220 (19.5%) males. The most frequent isolates were E. coli (50.44%), Klebsiella spp. (21.23%), and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (7.52%). It was found that the patients between the age group 18-30 and above 60 were the most susceptible, 37% and 32% of the total cases, respectively. Piperacillin-Tazobactam was observed as the most effective drug, as 52.24% of isolates were sensitive to it. Similarly, Doxycycline was found to be the least effective, as 57.75% of isolates were resistant. The most effective antibiotic regime against the most prevalent organism, i.e., E. coli was Imipenem (93.75% sensitive), Amikacin (90.63%), and Fosfomycin (91.28%). A statistically significant association was found between gender and UTI (P<0.01, OR=0.416 (0.326-0.532)) and the most prevalent organism and UTI (P<0.01).