Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of H. pylori Infection

Authors

  • Muhammad Hamza Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore (Sub-Campus Jhang), Jhang, Pakistan Author
  • Aziz ur Rehman Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore (Sub-Campus Jhang), Jhang, Pakistan Author
  • Shumaila kousar Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore (Sub-Campus Jhang), Jhang, Pakistan Author
  • Mudassar Nazar University of Agriculture Faisalabad (sub campus Burewala), Pakistan Author
  • Waqas Haider Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore (Sub-Campus Jhang), Jhang, Pakistan Author
  • Hafiz Abdul Rahil University of Poonch, Rawlakot AJK Pakistan Author

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.55627/agribiol.001.02.0649

Keywords:

Helicobacter pylori, Epidemiology, Virulence factors, Pathogenicity, Pakistan

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori infection is very common in Pakistan and other nations all over the world. It induces chronic gastritis, the strongest known risk factor for peptic ulcer disease, distal gastric cancer and a number of extra gastric related morbidity. Increased incidence may be caused by worse hygienic conditions and lower socioeconomic level. Age, smoking, crowded housing, poor-quality food (such as fast food or restaurant cuisine), and unclean water may also exacerbate the problem. Clinical consequences depend on the genetic diversity of the host and the virulence factors of the bacterium, especially in relation to immune response genes. The organism develops many strategies that help it accomplish sustained colonization, allowing it to avoid the hostile acidic environment of the stomach mucosa and the human immune response. By routinely monitoring the risk factor system, as well as by raising the socioeconomic position and hygienic circumstances of the populace, it is possible to reduce the spread of H. pylori infection in Pakistan.

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Published

2023-09-22

Issue

Section

Review Articles

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